The term eutrophication is derived from Greek word ‘eutrophos’ having meaning well-nourished which has become major environmental problem. Precisely it can termed as   the hyper-trophication which indicate the enrichment of water body with nutrients leading to the excess growth of phytoplankton number and biomass resulting the depletion of oxygen in water body and the condition is hypoxia. It can be also defined as the enrichment of water body by nutrients salts that causes structural changes to the ecosystem such as increase production of algae and aquatic plants ,depletion of fish species ,general deterioration of water quality and other effect that reduce and preclude use (OECD).

Eutrophication is predominately cause by excess nutrients which may have natural or anthropogenic origin and come from human action, agriculture practices, domestic waste water, industrial waste, atmospheric depletion of nitrogen and so on. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), direct discharge of sewage finds the way into river, stream, lakes, oceans and there by plaguing the water bodies by recurring of cyanobacteria and algal bloom. Nitrates and phosphate fertilizer are the primary factor for eutrophication which result explosive growth of bloom which can be observed in foam, water becomes cloudy and typically coloured a shade of green, yellow, brown or red.

       The process of eutrophication can be shortlisted as below:

  1. Excess phosphorus and nitrogen entry in water ways.
  2. Nutrient promotes plant growth especially algae.
  3. Algae bloom occurs, die and decomposed by bacteria.
  4. Decomposition of algae increase biological oxygen demand(BOD).
  5. There id drop in oxygen level.
  6. Fish, macro invertebrates and other aquatic animal form die.

Dense bloom of noxious foul smelling phytoplankton, Harmful algal blooms(HABs) is the most conspicuous effect of eutrophication leading to the limitation of light penetration, reducing growth and cause die-off of plants in the littoral zone. Oxygen depletion (Hypoxia) is observed which in severe results the condition no oxygen present (anoxia) which has impact in continuing to the threaten the lucurative and recreational fisheries worldwide. Some species of blue green algae produces toxin like microcystin, anatoxin, chorus, bartram etc. Toxigenic cyanobacteria like anabaena, cylindrospermopsis, microsystis, oscillatatoria etc are active and dominant due to superior competitive abilities. Decrease in no. of species and diversity of plant and animal occurs and there is high chance of shifting of fish species composition from more to less desirable area. Transparency of water decreases and turbidity increases which results deterioration of recreational value of lake of reservoir and also lead to the decrease in fish yield. High rate of photosynthesis can deplete dissolved inorganic carbon and   raised pH during day which may impair the chemical sensory abilities of blind organism. Similarly high concentration of organic matters which if treated with chlorine can create carcinogenic compounds which result negative impact in physiology of water bodies.

Hence if the process of eutrophication continues, it may pose serious threat to the potable drinking water sources, fisheries and recreational water bodies. To control it, proper step is to be implemented. For that, everyone need to be aware about natural runoff which is common in ecosystem. Clean up program is to be done time to time and minimize the external load of nutrients directly to water sources through manipulation of water body ecosystem .Application of potent algaecides like copper sulphate is effective in reducing HABs. Implementation of effective filter ecosystem to remove nitrogen and phosphorus present in runoff water through phytopurification plant like acorus calamus, vetiver grass, Zizania lotifolia etc. Alteration in food web to restore ecosystem health can be done. For example, removal of secondary consumer (plantivorus fishes) by addition of tertiary fishes which allows the dominance of large bodies like Daphia to control phytoplankton. Similarly proper planning of agriculture techniques, fertilizer application, use of slow release fertilizer like methylene urea, sulphur coated urea, isobutylidenediurea(IBDU) etc is effective. Oxygenation of water to restore the ecological condition to reduce the scarcity of oxygen aand toxic compounds deriving from anaerobic condition id helpful. Along this chemical precipation of phosphorus by addition of iron or aluminium salts or calcium carbonates in water helps in reducing the negative impacts related to the excessive phosphorus in the sediments and finally results in controlling the eutrophication.

प्रकृति तिमी साच्चै आदितिय थियौ                                                                                                               सम्पदाले नेपाललाई सजाएका थियौ                                                                                                               के पहाड के  हिमाल के  तराई                                                                                                                   सबैतिर आफ्नो विविधता फैलाएका थियौ !!!!!!!!!!!!

सुन्दर शान्त बिशाल हाम्रो देशमा                                                                                                                 आज खोइ तिमी निठुरी भयौ                                                                                                                 १९९०को दशक पाछिको २०७२ सालमा                                                                                                           आफ्नो बिशाल कालकुट रुपमा आयौ !!!!!!!!!!!

बैशाख १२को अपरान्ह ११:५६ को त्यो कालो दिन                                                                                          ७.९ रेक्टरको कम्पनले  सारा  नेपाल  हल्लायौ                                                                                         गोर्खाको बारपाकलाई केन्द्रबिन्दु बनाई                                                                                                     पलभरमै नेपालको इतिहास मेटायौ !!!!!!!!!!

न बस्नलाई छानो राख्यौ न खानलाई मानो                                                                                                   क्षणभरमै सारा नेपालीको मन रुवायौ                                                                                                           साधारण जिबन जिएका आम नेपालीमा                                                                                                      तिम्रो बिध्होसंले  सारामा बज्रपात गर्यौ !!!!!!!!!!!!

इतिहासको पानामा विराजमान धरोहर धरहरालाई                                                                                       कम्पनसंगै छिनभरमै टुक्राटुक्रा गर्यौ                                                                                                             विनाशको रेखा हदलाई पनि पार गर्दै                                                                                                                 आफ्नो बिध्होसंको लिला रच्यौ !!!!!!!!!!!

के बालक के बुढा के धनि के  गरिब                                                                                                     पराकम्पको मारमा कसैलाई छाडेनौ                                                                                                               अघि सम्म हास्दै खेल्दै गरेको त्यो बेसी ८००० अनुहार                                                                                   क्षणभरमै तिनीहरुको इतिलिला समाप्त गर्यौ !!!!!!!!!

टुहुरा विधुवा बेसहारा घाइतेको त लेखाजोखा छैन                                                                                 मानसपटलमा सन्त्रासको नराम्ररी बिजारोपन गर्यौ                                                                                   कतिखेर फेरी पराकम्पन आउने डरले                                                                                                      सबैलाई खुल्ला आकासबीच पुर्यायौ !!!!!!!!!!!

बिध्होसंसंगै नेपालीलाई चेतना बृद्दि गराछौ                                                                                               पुनर्निर्माणको गोरेटो खन्न जागरुक गराछौ                                                                                        महाभूकम्पले निम्त्याएको महाबिपत्ति सामना गर्न                                                                                        एकाआपसमा एकताको सूत्रपात गराछौ !!!!!!!!!

हो अब सहयोगी हातहरु परिचालन गर्दै                                                                                                   दुखेको घाउमा मलम लगाईनेछ                                                                                                                 राष्ट्रिय र अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय रुपमा हाते मालो गर्दै                                                                                                     देशले अब आफ्नो काचुली फेर्ने छ !!!!!!!!!!

कामना गरौं नेपालीको लागि त्यो कालो दिन फेरी आउने छैन                                                                           त्यो महाबिपत फेरी दोहोरिने छैन                                                                                                               अतह काधमा काध मिलाई इतिहासको सम्पदा फेरि उठ्ने छन्                                                                            पुन हाम्रो देश शिर उठाई विश्वमाझ चिनिने छ !!!!!!!!!!!!

आशाको किरण

Posted: October 21, 2015 in Uncategorized

अन्योलताको भुमरीमा फसेको बेला                                                                                                             साथमा साथ काधमा काध गर्दै                                                                                                                       हो मा हैस्ये मिलाउने बुलन्द आवाजहरु                                                                                                 एकताबद्ध मजबुत हातहरु                                                                                                                     नझुक्ने हाम्रो शिरहरु                                                                                                                                    र  अटल रहेको हाम्रो स्वाभिमान!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

न कहिले कसैको अधिनमा रह्यौ                                                                                                                  न वर्तमानमा हामी झुकेका छौं                                                                                                                 आफ्नो समस्या समाधान गर्न                                                                                                                 हामी आफै सबल छौ                                                                                                                           किनकि हामी बिर गोर्खालीको हौ                                                                                                            आत्मनिर्भर हाम्रो इतिहास साक्षी छ !!!!!!!!!

हामी साच्चै महान छौं                                                                                                                   परिवर्तनलाई सस्थागत गर्दै                                                                                                                    संभावनाको नक्शांकन कोर्दै                                                                                                                    राष्ट्रियतालाई मुलमन्त्र बनाई                                                                                                             अग्रगामी छलाङ्ग मारेका छौं                                                                                                                      बिगत र वर्तमान हामी सामु छ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

जन्जिरले देश बाधिएको बेला                                                                                                                     अब उठ्न ढिला  भयो भन्दै                                                                                                                            देशका लागि लड्ने बिर सपुतहरु                                                                                                                   हो आज तिम्रै बलिदानले                                                                                                                               देशले अग्रगामी छलाङ्ग मरेको छ                                                                                                         नेपालको संबिधान २०७२ पारित छ !!!!!!!!!!!!

पूर्वमा सुर्येको पहिलो झुल्कोसंगै                                                                                                               आशाका किरणहरु फैलिएको छ                                                                                                                  अब देशले गति लिन्छ भन्दै                                                                                                                          पिडिमा बस्नु भएको हजुरआमा मक्ख छिन्                                                                                                      र मुस्कुराउँदै भन्दै थिइन्                                                                                                                          अब देशमा भोकमरी हुने छैन                                                                                                            सिटामोलको अभावमा ज्यान गुमाउनु पर्दैन                                                                                                   खाने पानी लिन कोशौ जानु पर्दैन                                                                                                              देशमै स्वरोजगार हुने भए पछि                                                                                                               बिदेशी भूमिमा रगत पसिना बगाउनु पर्दैन                                                                                                जातका राजनीति  गर्नेहरु                                                                                                                         अब सदा सदाको लागि बिलिन हुने छन्                                                                                                      सन्तानको खोजीमा गोधुली धाउने बाबुआमा                                                                                                     आखै अगाडी तिनको प्रगति देखि मख्ख हुनेछन्                                                                                         त्रासै त्रासले पिल्सिएका मनहरु                                                                                                                       अब अमनचयनको सास फेर्ने छन्                                                                                                                  गास, बास कपासको ग्यारेन्टी हुदै                                                                                                            शिक्षा स्वास्थ्य सुबिधा सबैमा पुग्ने छ                                                                                                             बन्द कोठामा हुने  लेनदेनहरु टुंगिनेछन्                                                                                                       षड्यन्त्रका कुटिल चालहरु                                                                                                                   एकएक गर्दै पर्दाफास हुनेछन                                                                                                             रास्ट्रियतामा धावा बोल्ने जोकोहीलाई पनि                                                                                                  साम दाम दण्ड भेदको नीति हुनेछ                                                                                                                   बसन्तमा फुलैफूलले रंगबाहर ल्याउने छ                                                                                                       महा भूकम्पले थिचिएको मेरो देश                                                                                                               पुन आफ्नो स्वाभिमान उभिने छ                                                                                                                 के हिमाल के पहाड के तराई                                                                                                                     सङ्घीय संरचनाले सबैलाई एकसाथ जोड्ने छ                                                                                               अब प्रदेश प्रदेश बिचमा साझेदारी बढ्ने छ                                                                                                              जनमानसको निरन्तर दबाब संगै                                                                                                     नेताहरु जिम्मेवारी हुनेछन्                                                                                                                        एक आपसमा भाइचारा कायम गर्दै                                                                                                              देशका लागि कदमहरु बढ्ने छ                                                                                                                      र देशले साच्चै काचुली फेर्ने छ !!!!!!!!!!!!

हिमालको फेदमा हुर्केको छिमेकी                                                                                                                     मनमा सन्तोष मान्दै भन्दै थिए                                                                                                                 अब त अनुकुल वातावरण सिर्जना भइ                                                                                                           प्राकृतिक सम्पदाको संरक्षण गर्दै                                                                                                        जडीबुटीको उचित प्रयोग हुनेछ                                                                                                      सगरमाथाको शिर अटल रही                                                                                                         हिमश्रृंखलामा पर्यटन फस्टाउने छ                                                                                                          देशको मेरुदण्ड मजबुत हुनेछ !!!!!!!!!!!!

बिदेशी भूमिमा बेचिएर फर्केकी चेली                                                                                                                 आफ्नो पिरबेदना मनमा दबाउदै                                                                                                               मन्द मुस्कान छोड्दै भन्दै थिईन्                                                                                                                        अब चेलीहरु कोठीमा बेचिनु पर्दैन                                                                                                         दासी जिबन जिउन पर्दैन                                                                                                                     किनकि अब शिप र कलामा निपुण हुदै                                                                                                            सबै चेलीहरु स्वावलम्बी बन्ने छन् !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

बर्षौ कुरेर बल्ल न्याय पाएका काका                                                                                                                मनमा अठोटका साथ भन्दै थिए                                                                                                                     अब आशाको किरण झुल्केसंगै                                                                                                                    पिडकले न्याय पाउनेछ                                                                                                                     अपराधी सजायको भागीदार हुनेछ                                                                                                                  अब देशमा दण्डहीनताको अन्त्य हुनेछ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

खेतमा कामगरि फर्केका दाजु                                                                                                                     खुसि प्रकट गर्दै भन्दै थिए                                                                                                                              अब त किसानले पसिनाको मुल्य पाउनेछन्                                                                                              आर्थिक क्षेत्रमा क्रान्ति भइ                                                                                                                           दक्ष जनशक्ति देश निर्माणमा लाग्ने छन्                                                                                                      संचार प्रबिधि खेलकुदले फड्को मर्ने छ                                                                                                        घर गाउँ सहर हुदैँ                                                                                                                                राष्ट्रले अग्रगामी कदममा अघि बढ्ने छ                                                                                                           बिकाशको खुड्किलो एक गरि अर्को उक्लिदै                                                                                                     नेपाल र नेपाली बिश्व सामु चिनिने छ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

अनिश पराजुली “मित्र”

CULTIVABLE MUSHROOM SPECIES

Button or Paris Mushroom                                                

 Button or Paris Mushroom

Latin name: Agaricus bisporus                                                                     

Cultivation difficulty: very difficult

The white colored Button or Paris mushroom is most commonly found in the produce section of the grocery store. It remains the most highly cultivated mushroom throughout the world even though the actual culture is extremely complex. It requires the fabrication of a very specific compost and a layer of casings.

During the cultivation of the button mushroom, the casing is laid over the incubated mycelium, which makes this process difficult because the compost must not be sterilized though it must only contain beneficial bacteria for the fruiting of the mushrooms. The casing is usually made up of sphagnum moss, although vermiculite or coconut coir can also be used.

2.King Oyster Mushroom

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Cultivation difficulty: easy

The King Oyster is a mushroom greyish in color and is easily recognized by its particular long form. It has a medium pronounced, aromatic flavor and it can be conserved longer than the majority of mushrooms. In nature, it often grows in association with plants of the Ombelliferes family- notably the carrot.

The ideal medium for the King Oyster is a buried wooden log or again bag of wood chips. The interface of ground to wood is usually where its fruit will appear depending on the depth at which the wood is buried in the ground. For maximum production, the King Oyster thrives in temperatures varying between 10-15 degrees Celsius.

  1. Almond or Himematsutake Mushroom

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Latin name: Agaricus subrufescens

Cultivation difficulty: medium easy

The Himematsutake or Almond mushroom is whitish in color and has an almond taste when cooked. It grows very well in association with many garden veggies- to name a few: kale, gordes, zucchini, potatoes and melon. The culture

of this mushroom can grow on swaths of organic matter outside.

It grows in grounds rich in ligneous residues and in well composted substrata. Its growth is optimized by the use of compost rich in nitrogen and in fragment of plants, it is thus a very good mushroom recycler of organic waste. This mushroom benefits from the microflora of the ground and from the heat. It produces mushrooms when the ambient temperature is situated between 21°C and 24°C.

  1. Reishi

Latin name: Ganoderma Lucidum

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Cultivation difficulty: easy

The reishi is a red to dark brown colored mushroom. Its peculiarity is that it is as hard as wood and it is recognized for its medicinal properties. It grows on buried logs and will produce over several years. The block of mycelium on sawdust can be directly buried in the ground. It is necessary to assure good drainage in the place where the logs are buried. This mushroom can be consumed in herb tea (5 grams of mushroom by liter of water).

  1. Paddy Straw Mushroom

Latin name: Volvariella volvacea    

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Cultivation difficulty: medium easy

The Paddy Straw mushroom is a whitish/beige color. It grows on almost all the organic residues. It is a mushroom that needs heat and that flourishes in temperatures around 35°C. It can thus grow at the top of a compost heap or in a tunnel made from a transparent plastic. The mushroom and its mycelium must not be preserved in the refrigerator like all other mushrooms; it will degrade and the mycelium will die.

  1. Yellow Oyster Mushroom

Latin name: Pleurotus citrinopileatus

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Cultivation difficulty: medium difficult

The Yellow Oyster is a very beautiful mushroom due to its lemon yellow color. Its taste is gently less pronounced than other types of oysters though it gives off a interesting aroma. It’s

a tropical species so it requires a lot of warmth; its biological effectiveness is less impressive than other Oyster mushrooms.

To cultivate this mushroom, it is recommended to use a lot of the inoculant (at least 20% fresh mycelium to quantity of dry medium) for the insemination of a pasturised or pre-washed medium.

Pleurotus Sajor caju               

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It is widely practiced in commercial level. Temperature requirement of pleurotus is higher then agaricus and lower than volvariella. So, it is gaining popularity among the farmers of different agroecological zones. This mushroom is white under hot climate weather and grayish in cold weather. The stipe is usually very short and is of same color of the pileus. Pileus is fan like when young and gradually becomes deeply lobbed to form branch like making the mushroom appear as they are growing in cluster. On the underside of the pileus numerous gills are present which are of various length. Four basidiospores are formed at the tip of asidia.

Wild Species of Mushroom

  1. Shitake

Latin name: Lentinula edodes

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Cultivation difficulty: difficult

The shiitake mushroom is beige and brown in color. It is recognized for its multiple medicinal properties.

This mushroom is cultivated at the altitude of 1700-2500 masl where Alnus nepalensis and Castanopsis cuspidate are found. 5 sps of lentinus are found in Nepal. L. edodes is successfully grown in lab also. They are used for curing tumor, high blood pressure and diabetes.

  1. Morel

Latin name: Morchella esculenta/angusticeps

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Cultivation difficulty: very difficult

The Morel is a beige to dark brown mushroom that has a very characteristic conical shape. It usually grows in forested areas just following a forest fire. It is also possible to   find it growing in association with cultures like the Jerusalem artichoke or asparagus.

The mycelium of this mushroom grows very well in a laboratory but once inoculated outdoors it is very difficult to have it produce mushrooms. The mycelium must be placed where there was a forest fire and ideally sawdust is added to feed the mycelium. This one is a growing challenge for the advanced mycoculturists!

  1. Lycoperdon  
  2.  m10                                                                                                                  Pyriforme (pear-shaped puffball) are edible provided they are picked when young and the contents of the head are still white and firm. In Nepal upto now 2 species leycoperdon pusillium and lycoperdon pyriformae are found .this type of mushroom are more preferred by people living in terai region.they are found in khumbu himal region of Nepal have rough texture.

Lycoperdon pyriformae

Lycoperdon pyriforme, commonly known as the pear-shaped puffball or stump puffball, is saprobic fungus . Emerging in autumn, this puffball is common and abundant on decaying logs of both deciduous and coniferous wood. It is considered a choice edible when still immature and the inner flesh is white.

  1. Cordyceps sinensis                                                                                                      m11

In Nepal 2 species are recorded. They are found in the himalayan region of Nepal. After the commencement of spring and upto the rainy season they are found in Himalayan region grany belt. In the soil black fungus are seen at autumn and rainy season. The lower portion of the fungus is inside soil or remain attached with the larvae of lepidopteron. This fungus attack the larva and in next generation it gives fruiting structure. There is saying that it is 6 months insect and 6 months plant but scientist say it is the fungus that is foe to insect larva.

Medicinal importance-It is used as a reputed curative to many diseases, anti- aging, hypoglycemic, aphrodisiac and also treatment aainst cancer. cordyceps sinensis serves against kidney and lung problems and stimulates the immune system; it is used for treatment of fatigue, night sweating, respiratory disease, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthenia after severe illness, arrhythmias and other heart diseases.

5.Amanita jacksonii and Amanita caesarea (Caesar’s Mushroom

m12

Caesar’s mushroom is so named because it was a favorite of the emperor Claudius and led to his demise when he ate some that had been mixed with poison (Benjamin 1995). It is found throughout eastern North America and the warmer parts of southern Europe in summer and autumn associated with oaks and other deciduous trees. Although the American and European forms of this mushroom are listed under Amanita caesarea in many texts, the former is now considered to represent a different species: A. jacksonii. The combination of an orange cap up to 18 cm in diameter, orange-tinged stalk up to 15 cm high, orange-tinged ring, distinct volva, and orange gills makes this mushroom unlikely to be confused with any other Amanita in North America or Europe, although it is possible that a faded A. muscaria might mislead an inexperienced collector, particularly if the scales have been washed off by rain. The very similar species A. hemibapha is common in East Asia, where it is also highly regarded.

  1. Laccaria laccata (The Deceiver )                                                                                m13

This edible, highly variable, deceptive mushroom (hence the common name) is often found in clusters under deciduous and coniferous trees in late summer and autumn throughout temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The caps, which are 1.5–6 cm in diameter and have widely spaced gills, are usually reddish brown with peach tones when moist, yellowish brown when dry. The caps are dome-shaped and shiny when young but become flattened with a depression in the center, or funnel-shaped with a wavy edge, as they mature. With age the caps may become dry and dull. The stalks and gills are a similar color to the caps. The stalks are typically 5–10 cm high (though this may be highly variable), 0.5–1 cm thick, and often somewhat compressed or twisted. Moreover, the stalk may have a constant diameter throughout or taper toward either the apex or the base. Laccaria laccata sometimes resembles poisonous species.

  1. Coprinus atramentarius (Common Ink Cap)                                                 m14

The light brown caps of the common ink cap are larger than those of the non-inky coprinus (Coprinus disseminatus); they are typically 3–7 cm high and 4–7 cm in diameter. The caps are borne on a white stalk 7–17 cm high, which can have the remains of a ring close to the base. This species is often found growing in unlikely places such as along roadsides and in waste areas where there is rotting wood in the soil. It also occurs in lawns. The caps are edible but must be cooked within a few hours of picking as they rapidly turn black and release the spores in a black liquid (which, incidentally, was used in the past as a substitute for ink). If consumed with alcohol or within twenty four hours of having had any alcohol, the common ink cap will cause a period of extreme nausea, stomach cramps, and palpitations. These symptoms are so unpleasant that the mushroom has been used to cure alcoholics.

  1. Coprinus comatus (Shaggy Ink Cap                                                            m15

The shaggy ink cap is much larger than the common ink cap, occasionally reaching as much as 40 cm in height. The caps are cylindrical at first but eventually become bell-shaped. The gills are initially white, soon turning pink and then black. Once the gills are black, the bottom edge of the cap begins to drip a black liquid that contains the spores. Shaggy ink caps are usually found in waste areas and along roadsides during late summer to late autumn. Old caps do not look very appetizing but do have a good flavor, though they must be cooked within a few hours of picking. This mushroom is very widely distributed throughout the world, in part because it has been introduced into regions where it is not indigenous.

POISONOUS MUSHROOM

  1. Deadly Conocybe                                                                                                        m16

Deadly conocybe is the name for a type of mushrooms that have conical caps and rusty brown gills. Also known as Pholiotina filaris, these are widely distributed in America’s Pacific Northwest. Often mistaken for the similar looking Psilocybe, these common lawn mushrooms contain deadly mycotoxins which could lead to death when eaten.

  1. Death Cap                                                                                                    m17

The death cap is a medium-large, beautiful mushroom, widely distributed across Europe and Asia. Often mistaken for the popular, edible paddy straw mushroom, the death cap is considered highly toxic, and its toxicity can’t be reduced by freezing, drying or boiling. This deadly mushroom is responsible for the majority of mushroom poisonings worldwide.

3.Deadly Galerina

S.N Galerina autumnalis                                                                                          m18

This gorgeous saprobic mushroom is actually a poisonous mushroom that contains the toxin, α-amanitin. It damages the liver cells most, along with the kidneys and the central nervous system. So, do not mess around with this truly toxic mushroom.

  1. False Morel                                                                                                      m19

Sometimes collectively called sponge mushrooms, false morels are the members of the genus Gyromitra. They can easily be recognized by the distinctive, complexly infolded caps that resemble the surface of a brain. Often mistaken for the true morel, some of the species containMMH (Mono Methyl Hydrazine), which is suspected to be carcinogenicand can cause vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea and sometimes death.

5. Destroying Angel                                                                                                           m20

Botanical Name: Amanita virosa Secr.

A white-gilled and almost oval mushroom, the destroying angel is the most common toxic mushroom around the world. It containsamatoxins, responsible for fatal mushroom poisoning, as death caps do. The damage starts with the destruction of the liver and kidney tissue within a couple of hours after consumption, leading to death.

Mushrooming is considered a healthy hobby as one gets out into nature. Eating mushrooms adds flavor and richness to our food. But to enjoy the meal, you must remember to “never eat a mushroom unless you are 100% certain of the identification.”

  1. Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric)                                                                            m21

No introduction should be required for the fly agaric, which can be found illustrated in a host of children’s books and is probably the most photographed of all mushrooms. The orange to red cap with white scales and white gills, stalk, and volva make it almost impossible to mistake.

  1. Hebeloma and Inocybe Species                                                                             m22

Mushrooms belonging to the genera Hebeloma and Inocybe have ochre to brown spores, and most have no ring on the stalk. Hebeloma crustuliniforme (poison pie) and H. sinapizans have tan caps, light brown gills, whitish stalks, and are found associated with hardwoods and conifers in late summer and autumn. Both species smell strongly of radish and have a bitter taste. Many species of Inocybe have a small brown cap with a raised center and a variety of strange smells, including that of semen. The gills are grayish beige when young, turning darker brown with age. Although most are associated with hardwoods and conifers, some can be found in the grassy margins of paths and trails.

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Name                                    :          Anish Parajuli

Nickname                                :           ‘मित्र’

Birth date                                 :           2050/11/15

Horoscope                               :           Aries

School                                     :           Marigold English Secondary School ,Jyamire, Chitwan

Intermediate                             :           Prerana College , Bharatpur, Chitwan

Hobby                                     :           Net surfing, Social Service, cricket

UPA subject                            :           Horticulture

Permanent address                :           Hazipur, Ratnnagar-3, Chitwan, Nepal

Contact no.                              :           9845218759

Email address                         :           Parajulianish7@gmail.com

Plan in future                          :           To be agriculturist entrepreneurship.

Unforgettable event                :           Mirmi trekking being as alien

Memories

फेर्केर हेर्दा पक्लिहवाको साढेचार वर्ष बसाईको अबधिमा अनगिन्ती अमिटपलहरु रहे जुन जीवनभर यादगार रहन्छन् lIAASले लिएको entrance dated on 2067/06/10 मा नाम निस्के पश्चात शुशिल दाईको सम्पर्कमा रही 2067/10/05 को पक्लिहवा आगागमन , 067/10/27 बाट IAAS को फर्मल क्लास रोल नम्बर १४ बाट  येहाको बसाई सुरु गरियो l30 and 15 credit hoursको पाठ्यक्रम,Internal quiz,फोटोकपी रट्टामार शैली,one night fight in exam time, विद्यार्थी राजनीतिमा जबर्जस्त घुलमिल,गर्मी,जाडो,लामखुट्टे,सर्पको बिगबिगी,seniorsको आत्मीयता ,साथीभाईबहिनीहरुसंगको घुलमिल,राजनीतिक कुरा,समयसमयमा हुने पार्टी आदिमा आफुलाई समाहित गर्दै यहाको बसाई बित्यो l

Reminiscence :

पहिलो होस्टेल बसाई @Guestroom ८/८ जना,साथीहरु नाम थाहा नभएर मित्र भनि बोलाउदा पछि आफ्नै नाम मित्र रहन गएको,पक्लिहवा आएको पहिलो जन्मवर्षमा ममीबुबा आउनु भएको र मैले दिएको केरा पार्टी,Blockwise हुने फूटबल क्रिकेट आदि,खान सरको सुटबुट भई पढाउने शैली ,पहिलो लुम्बिनी भ्रमण र ट्यांकीमाथि जादा भागाभाग काण्ड,मेस मार्केटिङले बार्गेनिङ गर्न सिकाएको टिशिर्ट चै किन्न सकिएन,सुपर सिनिअर्सको बिदाई पछि सगरमाथा होस्टेल बसाई म, मनोज, बिदुर र अंकित,पाल्पा भ्रमण र भोकको रनामा मकै चोरेर भागेको काण्ड,बेलुका प्राय रिफ्रेश हुन so called Switzerland,आलुबारी,फार्मको भ्रमण,WEP भन्दै कोठा,चौरको सरसफाई,लक्ष्मीश्वोर सरको राम्रो पढ्या होत सोत अमेरिका गया हो भनाइ,करारमा आएका सरले हप्तादिनमै कोर्स सक्ने प्रवृतिमा घुलमिल ,२०६८/११/१९ गतेको student receiving issueले भएको राजनीतिक झगडा र क्याम्पस उत्पन्न अन्योल,3rd sem मा अर्जुन र म भएर सवारी लाइसेन्स लिदाको खुसीको पल,TT खेल्दाको साथीहरुकोसाथ र जस्मिन र ज्योस्त्नालाई सिकाएको पल,ब्याचको खेलकुद प्रतियोगिता जित्दा शंकरनगर गएर पिकनिक गरेको , नारायणी होस्टेलमा म र मनोज रुम पार्टनर कोठा नम्बर ३७,Ucms night haunting काण्ड,Yes-Agriculture को स्थापन,समय समयमा हुने distinction , birthday, New year,  Special welcome  party,होलीमा पोखरीमा फ्याक्ने चलन, खासा भ्रमणमा विजयको Aldehyde र ketone event र फेवातालमा घन्टौ डुंगामा सयेर ,मिर्मि जादा प्लास्टिक ओढी Alien जसरी हिडेको ,सेन्ट्रलले super six जित्दाको आत्मीयता ,मानवीयता सम्झदै गरेको रक्तदान,Project workको अनुभव,Sixth Semको Toughest period ब्येक्तिगत Writer’sCramp   होस्टेलको worldcup , Ipl , Cricket , night football, fanasty craze, भैरहवा महोशवमा नाचेको र मार्फा घटना, म्याराथन,सफलता पुर्बक सम्पन्न गरिएको Plant Clinic,VermiComposting,Missing India and Eastern tour ,साथीहरु बीच twitter गफ,क्यानटिन खाना खाजा Western Tour मा इंडिया हुदा भात खान नपाएको रना,dancing in the room with all @Masoori, first camp-fire experience, नामको मात्र बगैचाको लागि घन्टौ हिडेको,चादनीदोधारा पुग्दा सबैले राष्ट्रिय झन्डा सहित देखाएको देशप्रेम, Proposal , assignment, documentation, report एकै दिनमा सकाउने बानी, Practical सार्नमै सिमित प्रवृति , My Incredible  Cricket Inning 63*. विनासकारी 7.9 रेक्टर भूकम्पको साक्षी जसले नेपाल र नेपालीको इतिहास मेटायो ,मृत्यु अंगभंग सिमा रहेन,IAAS को अन्तिम पलहरुमा जिम्मेवारीबोध र थाहा छैन अब कहाँ पुगिन्छ ??

साथीलाई सम्झिदा विश्वो खोस्टोलोजी,दीपेशको quiz सर्ने अभियान,विजयको प्रस्तुति ,शरणको पेच, बिदुरको निन्द्रा,अंकितको लगान,मनोजको हुरहुर,मधुको attitude,जिसनको रत्रिकल,केशरको haircut, शिवमको रमाइलोपन,सुदीपको जोडी,संजीतको आवाज,दाईको जिम,रमेशको सहयोगीपन,अर्जुनको हासो,दिनेशको Innocent,प्रकाशको busy,ओमको aggression ,जय अलराउन्डर ,मन्दीपको सस्था,शशांक शरीर,रामकुमारको दारी,राजुको बोलि,सुरजको नाच,प्रदीपको फुच्छेपन,सुबिनको होनित,बिबेकको amnesty,रामशरणको नेतृत्व,प्रमोदको केटीका कुरा,सुर्यको योग,पुष्पको चित्रकला , किशोरको मिलनसार,पुरेको जुझारुपन!!!!!And finally gone to miss you all my friends, juniors, friendly environment of Paklihawa campus.

MY line : Enjoy the little things in life……..for one day you will look back and realize they were the big things.

                       महाभूकम्प “२०७२”

धरहरा

 प्रकृति तिमी साच्चै आदितिय थियौ                                                                                                                                             सम्पदाले नेपाललाई सजाएका थियौ                                                                                                                                                        के पहाड के  हिमाल के  तराई                                                                                                                                                             सबैतिर आफ्नो विविधता फैलाएका थियौ !!!!!!!!!!!!

सुन्दर शान्त बिशाल हाम्रो देशमा                                                                                                                                                             आज खोइ तिमी निठुरी भयौ                                                                                                                                                         १९९०को दशक पाछिको २०७२ सालमा                                                                                                                                               आफ्नो बिशाल कालकुट रुपमा आयौ !!!!!!!!!!!

बैशाख १२को अपरान्ह ११:५६ को त्यो कालो दिन                                                                                                                                     ७.९ रेक्टरको कम्पनले  सारा  नेपाल  हल्लायौ                                                                                                                                           गोर्खाको बारपाकलाई केन्द्रबिन्दु बनाई                                                                                                                                          पलभरमै नेपालको इतिहास मेटायौ !!!!!!!!!!

न बस्नलाई छानो राख्यौ न खानलाई मानो                                                                                                                                   क्षणभरमै सारा नेपालीको मन रुवायौ                                                                                                                                            साधारण जिबन जिएका आम नेपालीमा                                                                                                                                                 तिम्रो बिध्होसंले  सारामा बज्रपात गर्यौ !!!!!!!!!!!!

इतिहासको पानामा विराजमान धरोहर धरहरालाई                                                                                                                           कम्पनसंगै छिनभरमै टुक्राटुक्रा गर्यौ                                                                                                                                                 विनाशको रेखा हदलाई पनि पार गर्दै                                                                                                                                                       आफ्नो बिध्होसंको लिला रच्यौ !!!!!!!!!!!

के बालक के बुढा के धनि के  गरिब                                                                                                                                           पराकम्पको मारमा कसैलाई छाडेनौ                                                                                                                                                   अघि सम्म हास्दै खेल्दै गरेको त्यो बेसी ८००० अनुहार                                                                                                                             क्षणभरमै तिनीहरुको इतिलिला समाप्त गर्यौ !!!!!!!!!

टुहुरा विधुवा बेसहारा घाइतेको त लेखाजोखा छैन                                                                                                                             मानसपटलमा सन्त्रासको नराम्ररी बिजारोपन गर्यौ                                                                                                                                   कतिखेर फेरी पराकम्पन आउने डरले                                                                                                                                                    सबैलाई खुल्ला आकासबीच पुर्यायौ !!!!!!!!!!!

बिध्होसंसंगै नेपालीलाई चेतना बृद्दि गराछौ                                                                                                                                     पुनर्निर्माणको गोरेटो खन्न जागरुक गराछौ                                                                                                                                   महाभूकम्पले निम्त्याएको महाबिपत्ति सामना गर्न                                                                                                                   एकाआपसमा एकताको सूत्रपात गराछौ !!!!!!!!!

हो अब सहयोगी हातहरु परिचालन गर्दै                                                                                                                                                 दुखेको घाउमा मलम लगाईनेछ                                                                                                                                                              राष्ट्रिय र अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय रुपमा हातेमालो गर्दै                                                                                                                                           देशले अब आफ्नो काचुली फेर्ने छ !!!!!!!!!!

कामना गरौं नेपालीको लागि त्यो कालो दिन फेरी आउने छैन                                                                                                                   त्यो महाबिपत फेरी दोहोरिने छैन                                                                                                                                                         अतह काधमा काध मिलाई इतिहासको सम्पदा फेरि उठ्ने छन्                                                                                                                  पुन हाम्रो देश शिर उठाई विश्वमाझ चिनिने छ !!!!!!!!!!!!

अनिश पराजुली                                                                                                                                                                             रत्ननगर -३ ,चितवन

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1.Parsnip

B.N:- Pastinica sativa  

Family: Umbelliferae

Parsnips are valuable winter root vegetables, combining hardiness with the distinct flavour. Roots vary in the length from 13 – 20 cm .they also vary in shape .bulbous types are squat with rounded shoulders and wedge shaped roots, while the bayonet types tend to be narrow and longer.

Cultivation:- parsnip seeds do not remain viable for very long, so never use seeds that are more than two years old. Parsnips are normally sown in situ as they do not transplant well. Parsnips seeds are light and fragile looking, so the seed bed should be worked in to a reasonably fine tilt before sowing.

Roots are normally ready after three months of sowing. Avon resistor, cobham improved marrow, F1 gladiator and white gem are some of the improved cultivars.

  1. Celery (rare salad vegetables):-

B.N- Apium gravcolens                    

Family:  Umbelliferae

The traditional English trench celery is grown for its crisp, white, branched stems, which are mainly used around Christmas.

A mature celery plant has 7 – 15 celery distinguishable petioles, additional petiole developing at the apical meristem are hidden by the other large one. Leaves become progressively smaller and self branched because of light exclusion.

Cultivation:-

For high quality and yield it must be grown under exacting climatic condition. Optimum production occurs when mean temp. range between 16 – 21oC. seed germination and emergence of celery is slow. Germination at 10oC requires more than 15 days.

The celery crop is normally harvested when the maturity of plants are determined to be of marketable size. Leaves are cut sufficiently above the ground level to allow re-growth of new foliage.

  1. Pointed gourd

B.N. Trichosanthes dioica   

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Origin: India

 

Botany:-

Plants are semi-perennial creeper, dieocious, and leaf lamina cordate, ovate and oblong with basal lobes narrow round at base. Fruit is pepo botanically. They are small, round or thick long, green with white stripes or green with no stripes.

 

Climatic and Soil Requirements:-

Pointed gourd prefer warm and humid climate. They remain dormant during winter season. They grow best in sandy loam, perfect drainage andare very susceptible to water logging.

 

Planting Requirements:-

In order to plant one hac area of pointed gourd, about 2000 – 2500 cutting are required. Seed propagation is avoided in pointed gourd because of germination and since it is dioeciously in nature produces male andfemale plants in equal proportion if they are planted from the seeds.

Vine cuttings may be transplanted in august unplanned and in Nov. on riverbeds, spaced at 2 X 2 m. Vine cuttings are folded in the shape of the ring and planted in pits, keeping the ends above ground. Also straight vine cuttings are planted on a furrow filled with FYM and soil, keeping the cutting ends above the ground. Since the crop is dioecious, after every 10 female plants, a cutting from a male plant can be planted. In root cuttings, roots from old vines and dug up and planted either in nursery or in the field.

Fertilizers:-

At the time of land preparation 22 – 25 tons of FYM/hac. is mixed with soil in the furrows or in pits. A fertilizers dosage of 90 Kg of N, 60 Kg of P2O5 and 60 Kg of K2O per hac is advocated to the pointed gourd.

Intercultural Operation and Irrigation:-

Weeding should be done only when plants have sprouted and are well set shallow intercultural operation should be followed. Water should be given as and when required. Training the leaves over bowers give high yields. Picking also becomes very easy if the vines are trained.

Harvesting and Yield:-

Pointed gourd is ready for harvest in 80 – 90 days after planting. Harvesting should be done when the fruits are immature, tender and still green. Yield is varies from 6 – 8 tons/hac. in the first year, while it may increase to 14 – 15 tons/hac. during the second year.

 

Storage and Marketing:-

Fruits after harvesting can be stored under ordinary condition for about 3 – 4 days. Fruits are sells to the market in a basket or gunny bags.

Varieties:-

No improved varieties have been recommended, only local strains are planted in the different regions. They are as follows:-

Green oval, Green long striped, Davdli, Kalyani, Bihar sharit, Guly, FPS, FPG, FPI and FP3.(FP for Faijasad Parwar).

  1. Yam

B.N. DIoscorea spp.

Family: Dioscoreaceae

It constitutes an important source of food in tropical Asia and America. It is the rich source of Carbohydrates and Proteins. The processing and consumption are still by conventional method. The conventional processing technique is boiling, roasting, frying or conversion to fufu. Fufu is an important product made by yam. Yam flour is also need for human consumption as kokoute northern zone Africa. The genus consists of about 600 sps. About 50 – 60 sps.. of Dioscorea are cultivated to a limited degree or gathered as famine ford. Following some sps. are used for food purpose.

  1. alata– greater yam (Asiatic Yam)
  2. sculenta- Lesser yam (Asiatic Yam)
  3. rolundela (white Yam)
  4. bulbifera, D. hispida, D. trifida, D. dumetorum, D. opposite, D. japorica

 

Origin:-

South East Asia- probably Burma or Assam (India)

Botany:-

Yam plants have tuber or rhizome from which the vines and roots emerge annually during the growing season. It is inferred that the yam, tuber is neither a root structure nor stem structure but it may have its origin as a hypocotyls structured. Male and female flower are borne on separate plants and thus the all the members of the genus are dioecious.

Varieties:-

Sree Keerthi, Sree Roopa, Sree Shilpa, Shree Latha, Sree Kala, Sree Subhra, Sree Priya, Sree Dhanya.

Soil and Climate:-

Yams require a fertile, free drainage soil and grow best in sandy loam soil. High rainfall is required for maximum production. Temperature in the range of 20 – 30oC promote better growth.

Propagation:-

Yams are propagated vegetatively and tuber pieces are normally planted. For propagation, the whole tuber is cut in to seed pieces consisting of tops (proximal), middles and bottom distal. The sad Yams and tops are preferred for their earlier and uniform sprouting. The tuber pieces may be dipped in cow dung slurry and allowed to dry under shade before planting. A seed tuber weight of 200 – 250 gm is ideal for optimum production in D. alata. For D. sculanta a seed tuber Yam weight of 100 – 150 gm is optimum.

 Land Preparation:-

The soil should be dug deep or ploughed to a depth of 10cm. on sandy soil yam are planted flat. Rising beds and trenches are also used for planting. The seed pieces are planted at the depth of 15 cm in soil and planting deeper than this has been found to give lower yield.

Spacing:-

A closer spacing of 75 cm X 75 cm is optimum for D. esculanta while a wider spacing of 90 X 90 cm2 for D. alata and D. rotundata.

Interculture:-

Mulching immediately after planting is beneficial for increasing the tuber yield. Staking exposes the leaves to sun light and the yields of the stake plants are higher than those of unstake plants. Yams generally take about 30 – 40 days for sprouting and under 2 months to develop a vegetative cover on the ground. The first weeding may be done at 1 week after 50% sprouting and the second a month later.

Manures and Manuring:-

Application of FYM@ 10 ton/hac. along with NPK@ 80 – 120: 60: 80 is optimum. Phosphorus may be given in the single dose along with half dose of nitrogen and potash at the first interculture. The remaining dose of nitrogen and potash mat be applied a month later along with second interculturing.

Harvesting:-

Yams are generally harbvested at 8 – 9 months after planting when they attain maturity.

  1. Asparagus

B.N:- Asparagus officinalios       

Family: Liliaceae

Asparagus is an herbaceous perennial and the tander shoots called spears are used as vegetables and in preparation of soup. It is also eaten as salad.

Origin:-

The origin of asparagus is temperate Europe and Asia, where it has been in cultivation for over 2000 yrs.

Botany:-

Asparagus is a perennial dioecious herb with erect branches and growing to a height of 1 – 3 m. Roots are tuberous, occur horizontally inside the soil and save as storage organs. The leaves are narrow and needle like. The crown is made of roots and rhizomes. The aerial stem (spear) arrises from a bud on the rhizome. The male and female plants are separate and the female plants produce barries with 1 – 3 seeds/fruits.

Climate and Soil:-

Asparagus prefer sandy- silt loam or alluvial soils (pH 6 – 7.5) with high organic matters. It is a temperate crop and requires a temperate range of 15.5 – 23.8oC for most growing season for spear production. A low temperature is necessary for 60 – 90 days during dormant season. For economic yield an evolution of above 1000 m is ideal.

Seeds and Sowing:-

Asparagus is propagated through seeds or crown. 3 – 4 Kg of seeds should be required to raise seedling for planting one hectare. The sowing is done during March to May in hills and July to Nov. in plains and seeds germinate in 3 – 4 weeks.

Crop Production:-

The main field is prepared by ploughing 2 – 3 times after incorporating 30-40tons of FYM/hac. Ridge and furrow are formed at a distance of 100 – 150 cm with a furrow depth of 20 – 25 cm. the seedling or crown are planted  at a spacing of 40 – 60 cm. after planting the furrow are filled with soil so as to cover the crown to a height 2 – 3 cm. The seeds can also be sown directly on the sides of ridges. A basal dose of 20-30kg/ha N, 80 – 100 Kg/hac. K is applied. The seedlings are transplanted after 7 – 12 months. Crown taken from 1 yr old plants can also be used for planting. Well grown crowns of good size containing large buds are selected, separated from mother plants before buds sprout and planted within a few hrs.

Irrigation and Weed Management:-

The first irrigation is given at a time of planting and this after at 10 – 15 days interval. Weeds between rows can be kept under control by shallow hoeing so that the young sprouts are not damaged.

Blanching:-

Molding the soil to a height of 20 – 25 cm over the rows is practiced to blanch the young spears and get white asparagus for canning. After harvesting the green asparagus sent for fresh market, blanching is normally done to produce white asparagus.

Harvest:-

The aerial shoots called spears arise from the buds on the rhizome 6 months after planting of crown or seedlings. The spears should not be harvested up to 1 yr after planting the crown, because of active growth of root system and rhizome during this period. The production of spears is at the expense of food stored in the roots during the previous yr and as such sufficient time should be allowed for storage of food materials. The first cutting should be done two yrs after planting. In 1 yr, the cutting season should be restricted to limited periods of 2 – 3 weeks in the first cutting and 8 – 12 weeks in the subsequent yrs of regular harvesting. The spears to cut it off below the ground surface with a knife called asparagus knife. Care should be taken while cutting so that the young adjacent sprouts are not damage. Crooked and curved spears are rejected. The average yield per year is 1.2 – 3 tons/hac.

Post-harvest and Handling:-

After harvest, they are made into bunches and carried to sheds, where grading, trimming, washing and packing in crates are done. The spears can be  stored at oC and 90% RH for a period of 3 – 4 weeks.

radish

कतिपय हामीहरु मूलालाई सस्तो तरकारीको रुपमा हेंला गछौं । तर, मूला हाम्रो स्वास्थ्यका लागि निकै लाभदायी हुन्छ । आउनुहोस् जानौं मूलाले हाम्रो स्वास्थ्यमा पार्ने फाइदा :

१. किराले टोक्दा :  कुनै किराले टोक्दा समयमा औषधि नलगाउने हो संक्रमण हुन सक्छ । तर, मूलाले संक्रमणबाट बचाउन सक्छ । मूलाले किराले टोक्दा हुने पोल्ने समस्या, लूतो र पीडाबाट मुक्ति दिन्छ ।

२. जवान रहन :  मूलामा भिटामिन सि र एन्टिअक्सिडेन्ट पाइन्छ , जसले छालालाई नष्ट हुनबाट बचाउँछ । यसकारण मूलाले मानिसलाई  सधैं जवान रहन मद्दत गर्छ । यसका अलावा मूलामा पाइने फस्फोरस तथा जिंकले छालालाई लामो समयसम्म ताजा राख्छ ।

३. छालाको सफाई :  मूलाले शरीरमा भएको विषाक्त तत्वलाई बाहिर निकाल्न मद्दत गर्छ, जसको फलस्वरुप छाला सफा हुन्छ । यसका साथै छालाको सफाईका लागि मूलालाई काटेर लगाउनुपर्छ ।

४. मसल्स बनाउन :  यदि मसल्स बनाउने इच्छा भने त्यसका लागि धेरै पोषकतत्व जरुरी पर्छ । मूलामा प्रचूर मात्रामा प्रोटीन पाइन्छ, जुन मसल्स बनाउन आवश्यक तत्व हो । मूलालाई डाइटको रुपमा पनि समावेश गर्दा धेरै फाइदा हुन्छ ।

५. चाया हटाउँछ :  आफ्नो डाइटमा सलाद या तरकारीको रुपमा मूलालाई सामेल गर्नुहोस् । चाया हटाउन मूलाको रस कपालको जरामा लगाएर तौलियाले बेर्नुहोस् र एकघण्टापछि धुनुहोस् । यसबाट चायाको समस्या समाधान हुनेछ । यसका अलावा मूलाले कपाल झर्न रोक्नुका साथै कपालमा चमक पनि ल्याउँछ ।

६. तौल घटाउँछ :  मूलामा धेरै पानीको मात्रा हुन्छ । त्यसैले मूलाको सेवनले क्यालोरी प्राप्त हुँदैंन र बोसो पनि कम गर्छ । यसैले मोटोपना घटाउनुछ भने खानामा मूला सामेल गर्नुहोस् ।

७. डाइबिटिज रोगीका लागि उपयोगी : मूलामा फाइबर हुन्छ । यसैले डाइबिटिजका बिरामीले यसलाई आरामले खान सक्छन् । मूलाले रगतमा चिनीको मात्रा सन्तुलित पार्छ, जसबाट यो डाइबिटिज बिरामीका लागि राम्रो सलाद हो ।

८. रुघाखोकीमा  :  यदि लगातार रुघाखोकीले सताएको छ भने डाइटमा मूला सामेल गराउनुहोस् । मूलामा एन्टि कन्जेस्टिभ गुण हुन्छ, जसले घाँटी सफा गर्छ । साथै यसले प्रतिरोधी प्रणालीलाई पनि मजबूत बनाउँछ ।

९. जण्डिसमा उपयोगी  : मूलाले शरीरबाट विषाक्त पदार्थ बाहिर पठाई कलेजो तथा पेटको सफाई गर्न मद्दत गर्छ । यो जण्डिस रोगमा पनि सहायक हुन्छ । यसले रगतमा बिलिरुबिनको मात्रा नियन्त्रित गर्छ र शरीरमा अक्सिजनको आपूर्ति बढाउँन मद्दत गर्छ । जण्डिसका कारण राता रक्तकोषमा क्षति हुनबाट समेत बचाउछ ।

१०. मिर्गौलाको सफाई :  मूलाले युरिनल ट्रेक्ट इन्फेक्सन (युटिआई) बाट पनि बचाउँछ । यसले मिर्गौलाको सफाई गर्छ  यसको रसबाट संक्रमणका दौरान हुने पीडाबाट पनि राहत मिल्छ ।

farm004px

बाख्रा पालन व्यवसायमा अत्यन्त लाभदायक साना कृषकहरूले समेत सिमित पूँजिमा पाल्न सक्ने हुँदाहँुदै पनि यसलाई व्यवसायीकरण गर्न सकिएको छैन । फलस्वरुप नेपालमा वर्षेनी २० लाखको हाराहारीमा खसीबाख्राहरू विदेशबाट मासु आपूर्तिको लागी भित्रिएको पाईन्छ । तसर्थ व्यवसायिक रुपमा बाख्रा पालन गरी विद्यमान आयतको संख्या न्यून गर्न बाख्रा पालनका विभिन्न पक्षहरू जस्तै गोठ÷खोर व्यवस्थापन, आहारा, प्रजनन र स्वास्थ्य व्यवस्थापनमा विशेष ध्यान दिनु आवश्यक हुन्छ ।

खोर/गोठ व्यवस्थापन
बाख्रा लाई बस्नको लागी पानी नजम्ने ठाँउमा यथेष्ठ घाम तथा हावाको प्रवाह हुने गरी एउटा बाख्रालाई १ वर्ग मिटर को ठाँउ पुग्ने गरी , जमिनबाट १ मिटर उठाई १/२”को दूरिमा काठ ठोकी टाँड बनाउनु पर्छ र घाँस राख्नको लागी टाट्नो ९जबथ चबअप० बनाउनु पर्छ । बाख्रा यस्तो प्राणी हो जस्ले आफुले कुल्चेको घाँस खाँदैन । दैनिक रुपमा गोठको सरसफाई गरीरहनु पर्छ । खोरको अगाडि यार्ड बनाउन सके राम्रो हुन्छ । हिउँद तथा वर्षातमा मौसम अनुसार तातो र चिसोबाट बचाउने व्यवस्था मिलाउनु पर्छ ।

आहारा व्यवस्थापन
बाख्राबाट अपेक्षित फाईदा लिन यिनिहरूको शारीरिक अवस्था अनुसार पोषिलो घाँस तथा दाना उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्दछ । घाँसको साथै दैनिक २५० ग्राम दाना दिएर पाल्दा दैनिक ७०–८० ग्राम शारीरिक तौल वृदि भएको अनुसन्धानले देखाएको छ । पाठापाठीको राम्ररि हेरचाह गरी पाल्दा ९ महिनाको उमेरमा २० के.जि सम्मशारिरक तौल पाईएको छ । बाख्राहरूलाई दाना बनाउदा घरमै पाईने मकै, भटमास, गहुँको चोकर वा धान (अन्नवाली०) ७२ भाग, पिना गेडागुडी २५ भाग, नून १ भाग र लवणहरूको मिश्रण २ भाग राखी बनाउन सकिन्छ । बाख्रालाई शारीरिक तौलको ३–५५ सुख्खा पदार्थको आधारमा घाँस उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्छ । दैनिक ४–६ घण्टा चराएर पाल्दा राम्रो उत्पादन लिन सकिने अनुसन्धानबाट थाहा भएको छ ।

प्रजनन व्यवस्थापन
बाख्राहरू वर्षमा २ पटक व्याउने तथा वाली लाग्ने गर्दछन्, खासगरी अश्विन/कार्तिक, फागुन/चैत्र यिनिहरूको व्रिडिङ सिजन हो । यस समयमा बाख्रालाई विषेश किसिमको हेरचाह चाहिन्छ । यथेष्ठ सन्तुलित आहार प्रदान गर्न सके बाख्राहरूमा अण्डा र बोका हरूमा शुक्रकिट उत्पादन उच्च उत्सर्गमा पुग्ने हुँदा जुम्ल्याह जन्मन सक्ने सम्भावना बढि हुन्छ । प्रजनन गराउँदा शारीरिक अवस्था राम्रो भएको छनोट गरी नजिकको नातामा प्रजनन गराउनु हुँदैन ।

यस्तो भएमा जातिय उत्पादन क्षमतामा ह्रास आउने हुन्छ । बथानका बोका मिसाँउदा एक बोकाको लागी ४० वटा सम्म बाख्रा मात्र राख्नु पर्छ । एक वर्षको बोका भएपछि मात्र बाली लगाउनु राम्रो हुन्छ । नवजात पाठापाठीलाई ३/४ पटक दैनिक बिगौति दुध खुवाउने व्यवस्था मिलाउनु पर्छ । करिब ७/८ बेत ब्याईसकेपछि माउ बाख्राहरूलाई हटाउनु राम्रो हुन्छ । बथानमा प्रजनन्को बोका बाहेक अन्यलाई खसी पारिदिनु पर्छ । प्रजनन्को लागि बोका बाख्रा छनौट गर्दा राम्रो शारीरिक अवस्था भएको जुम्ल्याहा जन्मेको मध्यबाट छनौट गर्नु पर्दछ । प्रजनन् योग्य बोका बाख्रा नार्कको फर्महरू र जिल्ला पशु सेवा कार्यालयद्वारा स्थापित स्रोत केन्द्रबाट पाउन सकिन्छ ।

स्वास्थ्य व्यवस्थापन
बाख्राहरूलाई बाहय तथा आन्तरिक परजिवीले निकै प्रभाव पार्ने हुन्छ । वर्षमा ४ महिनाको फरकमा बाहय तथा आन्तरिक परजिवी विरुद्घ डिपिङ्ग तथा डेन्चिङ गराउनु पदर्छ । डिपिङ्गको लागी ०.२५–०.५५ को बजारमा पाईने मालाथिएन, साइपरमेथ्रिनको झोलले सम्पूर्ण शरीर नुहाईदिने वा डिपिङ्ग टयाङ्कीमा डुबाईदिने ।

त्यसै गरी आन्तिरिक परजिविको लागी अलबेन्डाजोल, फेन्बेन्डाजोल ९५–७.५ एम.जि./प्रति के.जि. शारीरिक तौलको हिसाबमा खुवाउने वा आईभरमेक्टिन सुई ९१ एम एल/प्रति ३० के.जि शारीरिक तौलको हिसाबले छालामुनि लगाउँदा आन्तिरीक तथा बाहय दुवै परजिवीमा प्रभावकारी पाईएको छ । अन्य संक्रामक रोग पिपिआर, एचएस, खोरेत, इन्टरोटोक्सेमिया आदि विरुद्घको खोप नियमित रुपमा लगाउनु पर्छ । यसरी बाख्रालाई स्वस्थ राखी अधिकतम फाईदा लिन सकिन्छ

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Production of fresh vegetable after or before their normal season is called off-season vegetable production. The objective is to produce and supply vegetables to the market during their lean period of supply.

Advantages:-

  1. The farmers can learn specific techniques of vegetable production.
  2. The farmers can develop confidence and make vegetable production as their main profession.
  3. The farmers can get higher profits from off-season production.
  4. The consumers can get fresh vegetables during off-season.
  5. Sometimes it is possible to export fresh vegetables and earn foreign currency.
  6. It creates employment for farm laborers all the year round.

Disadvantages:-

  1. It requires highly specialized techniques of vegetable production.
  2. Sometimes it becomes a risky operation due to possibility of incidence of diseases and pests.
  3. It needs very regular supervision and follows up from the government agencies concerned.
  4. It is possible on a commercial scale only in areas where marketing is not a problem.
  5. It may be a source of pollution.

Concept of off-season vegetable production:-

In the context of Nepal, due to the diverse climatic condition, the vegetables are produced in one agro climatic region during their normal season of production and marketed to other areas as off-season vegetables where those vegetables can’t grow during that period. Because of the diverse agro climatic conditions available in different altitudes of the country, almost every type of vegetable can be grown in Nepal almost all the year around by adjusting the time of planting and by the use of suitable varieties.

Types of off-season vegetable production in Nepal:-

  1. Adjustment of planting/ sowing time:-

With the  adjustment of planting time the vegetables can be grown in off-season. E.g. summer  vegetables are sown about 2 months earlier than the normal season for early  crop.

Season Sowing Harvesting
1.    Normal season March – May June – August
2.    Off-season production Jan. – Feb. April – June

 

Generally, the cucurbitaceous crops are forced in late winter at the seedling stage and transplanted in open field for early crop. Similarly, tomato, brinjal, sweet potato, cucumber, and squash are also forced at the young stage during late winter in mid and hills.

  1. Use of improved varieties with different maturity:-

The use of improved varieties which can avoid or tolerate the limiting factors can prolong the production and supply. E.g. in cauliflower, a early cultivar i.e. Pusa Dipali becomes ready to harvest in September when planted early whereas Kathmandu local becomes ready for harvesting in November – December and Snowball-10 variety, a late variety, which becomes ready for harvesting in January- February.

  1. 3. Use of different agro climatic conditions:-

Generally, vegetables are grown during normal season in one climatic region and marketed as off-season in other climatic regions. E.g. in high altitudes in Tistung, Palung and Dang the farmers produce cauliflower, cabbage, radish, leafy vegetables and peas during summer and rainy seasons and supply to the markets of Kathmandu valley, Pokhara and terai. Similarly, the farmers of lower hills and terai produce tomato, brinjal, sweet peppers and cucumber during winter and spring and supply to the market of mid and high hills.

4.Protected cultivation:-

In temperate or in subtropical region during winter season, the main constraints of vegetable production is low temperature. The following structures are used to manage the air temperature.

  1. Plastic tunnel: It is the easiest and cheapest method of controlling environment by using polythene sheets. About 1m wide raised beds are prepared and bamboo stakes are bent over it to make a semi-circular shape and polythene sheets are put over it. This is generally practiced for raising seedlings for summer crops during the winter months.
  1. Walk-in tunnel: Walk-in tunnel is used to produce or to cultivate the short growing vegetable crops.
  1. Polythene house: A polythene house of any size can be constructed by using polythene sheets, bamboo stakes or galvanized iron pipes. The tall growing plants generally tomato and cucumber are grown in plastic or polythene house.
  1. Well equipped glass house: In such houses, temperature, humidity, soil moisture and light are managed as per the requirement of the crops. It is highly capital intensive and yields are very high and of excellent quality. In the tropics, the main constraints of vegetable production are high temperature, heavy rainfall and insect pests and diseases. To protect the crop plants from these, we use the mentioned material as follows;

Practices of off-season vegetable production:-

  1. Netting: The use of net to protect from insect pests. The net reduces the temperature and break the rain drops into small particles.

 

  1. Plastics: The use of plastics as roofing materials in the tropics is to protect the crop from excessive rain. If the plastic is coated with white wash, partial shade can be achieved during hot summer days. The main problem from the use of plastics is building up heat. To prevent the raising of temperature in the plastic house, we can practice to build roof from the plastics and the sides are made of the net to reduce the building up of heat in the plastic house.
  1. Misting: It is practiced to reduce the temperature in the plastic house or glass house. Generally, the misting is done with cold water.

Use of plastic in vegetable production:-

There are two basic applications of plastic in horticulture. Either it is used as a mulching material or as a roofing material.

  1. Super thin films: The thickness of plastic is less than 10 microns. Such plastics are used to minimize the plastic pollution.
  1. Yellow/brown plastics: The upper yellow side attracts the insect pests and lower brown side prevents light penetration and inhibits weed growth.

Silver/brown plastics: The silver side repels the insect pests by reflecting light and brown side prevents light penetration and weed growth.

  1. Brown plastics: The plastic heats soil like the transparent film and prevents weed growth as a black film.
  1. Black plastics: The plastic helps to maintain low soil temperature and prevents weed growth.

Characters of plastics being used as a covering material:-

  1. Insect repelling UV films: Ultraviolet radiation blocking plastic films acts as insect repellent. Aphids, white fly and leaf miner becomes disoriented and blinded under such films.
  1. UV stabilized plastics: The plastics are stabilized against ultraviolet radiation degradation to extend the life span of the plastics. The UV stabilized plastics have an effective life of four seasons.
  1. Photosynthetic efficiency: The angle of incidence of a ray of light is altered by a minimum of 4 degrees on exit from the plastics. The diffused light becomes more available to the plants than the direct light.

 

  1. Infra-red blocking: The plastic roof act as a cloud in the sky. It does not allow to escape the infra-red radiation from the plastic house by which the plastic house become warm.
  1. Woven plastic: Very strong, resistant to tear; for longer use.